Dental Lasers are of two types soft tissue lasers and hard tissue. They can be used for Tooth Decay: Lasers are used to remove decay within the tooth and prepares the tooth to receive filling Tooth whitening: Lasers speeds up the In office bleaching process Gum Disease: Lasers can be used for debridement in gum surgeries,Gum shaping, gum bleaching( Depigmentation) Root canal Sterilization: Dental lasers can also be used for laser sterilization of root canal
Smile Designing is improving the appearance of the smile through one or more cosmetic dentistry procedures like dental veneers, Laminates, Composite filling, Oral Implants, teeth whitening, esthetic crowns like all ceramic, zirconia, e max Smile designing might also require gum surgeries like gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, frenectomy, crown lengthening procedure , depigmentation or covering recession(receding gums) procedures like coronally advanced flap( gums are advanced to cover the exposed root )
Erbium lasers are built with two different crystals, the Er:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet crystal) and Er,Cr:YSGG ( chromium sensitized yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal). They do have different wavelengths, Er:YAG has 2940 nm and Er,Cr:YSGG has 2780 nm. Though similar, there is a significant water absorption difference between these two wavelengths. Er:YAG wavelength is at the peak of water absorption in the infrared spectrum whereas the Er,Cr:YSGG exhibits approximately one third less absorption. The Er,Cr:YSGG has also been shown to have significantly deeper thermal penetration in tooth structure as well. In general terms they behave similarly and will simply be referred to as erbium lasers.
Diode lasers are becoming quite popular due to their compact size and relatively affordable pricing. A specialized semiconductor that produces monochromatic light when stimulated electrically is common to all diode lasers. A simple laser pointer is an example of a diode laser. Diode lasers can be used in both contact and non-contact mode and can function with continuous wave or gated pulse modes. They are not capable of free running pulsed mode. Diode lasers are invisible near infrared wavelengths and current machines range from 805–1064 nm. One exception is the Diagnodent caries diagnostic laser which uses a visible red wavelength of 655 nm.
All four major wavelengths of dental lasers can be used as soft tissue surgical devices. The primary chromophores for diode and Nd:YAG lasers are pigments such as hemoglobin and melanin. Diode lasers when used surgically use the indirect heat generated by the pigment initiated on to the fiber tip. The erbium and CO2 lasers are mostly absorbed by water. All these lasers use photothermal effects to incise tissue whereby photons absorbed are converted to heat energy in order to do work.